Passive Fire Protection

    • Norimax Passive Fire Protection Team specializes in application of intumescent fireproofing coatings for hydrocarbon-fires and jet-fires in the Oil & Gas environment. Norimax PFP applies both solvent-based and water-based intumescent fireproofing coatings.
    • Norimax PFP team also specializes in the installation of fire-jackets for valves and actuators.

The effect of fire on intumescent coating

Intumescent fireproofing coating swells to >40 times in volume when burnt by fire.

The swelling is due to exothermic reaction of the fire-resistant chemicals in the coating.

The swelling insulates the steel below the coating while swelled coating maintains its integrity for up to 2 hours.

PFP Application


Maintain Structural Integrity of Metal Supports before collapse. Steel structure collapse within 5 minutes in hydrocarbon fire.

- Norimax is approved aplicator for:

    • ALBI –water-base
    • PITT-CHAR – solvent-base

Active Fire Protection

- Require mechanical trigger to activate the system - To extinguish the fire-

    • Sprinklers
    • Fire Extinguisher
    • Hose Reel

Passive Fire Protection

    • Fireproofing systems such as coatings, jackets & blankets which do not need mechanical activation - to protect structures under fire-

Passive Fire Protection Materials

    • Concrete
    • Cementitious Products
    • Epoxy Intumescent Coatings
    • Acrylic Intumescent Coatings
    • Fire Proofing Casting
    • Fire Proofing Jackets


    • Example: 6 inches for 2 hours fire protection
      Concrete spalls after 2 hours and fire penetrate to the steel column


    • Example: Mandoval, Pyrok, Pyrocrete
    • Made from volcano ash (Vermiculite), mineral fiber, etc.
      2-3 inches for 2 hours fire protection Spalls after 2 hours and fire penetrate to the steel column

Intumescent Coating

    • Firetex M90 – solvent based
    • Chartek 7 - solvent based
    • Pittchar - solvent based
    • Thermolag - solvent based
    • ALBI 800 – water based
      5-20mm thickness for 2 hours fire protection

Passive Fire Protection Intumescent Materials

Passive Fire Protection Standards/ Fire Rating

    • Cellulosic < 1000º C Hydrocarbon Fire > 1000 º C
    • Cellulosic-timber, fabric, paper, etc. Hydrocarbon-chemicals, fuels, gas, petroleum
    • Jet Fire- hydrocarbon fire from fractured riser pipe or product pipeline, etc.

Steel start to buckle & collapse at about 550 deg C

Test Standards of Passive Fire Protection (Cellulosic)

    • BS 476 Part 7-Fire tests on building materials and structures
    • ASTM E119-Fire tests of Building Construction and Materials
    • ISO 834-Fire-resistance tests-Elements of building construction

Test Standards of Passive Fire Protection (Hydrocarhon)

    • UL 1709 Rapid Rise Fire Tests of Protection Materials for Structural Steel
    • Jet fire-Sintef Test (Norway)
    • Jet fire-British Gas Test (Spade Adams-UK)

Testing Bodies

    • Underwriter Laboratories (UL)-USA
    • Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD)
    • Sintef (Norway)
    • Det Norske Veritas (DNV) - Norway
    • Lloyds Register - UK
    • BAM - Germany (vessels)
    • ExxonMobil - US

Fire Test Heat Flux

    • Cellulosic Fire 100kW/m²
    • Hydrocarbon Fire 200kW/m²
    • Jet Fire 300kW/m²


    • STABILITY- The construction must remain stable during the period of the fire and must not collapse.
    • INTEGRITY- The construction must maintain its integrity during the test period such that no gaps of sufficient width open up to allow penetration of flames.
    • INSULATION- The fire insulation properties of the construction must be such that unexposed face must not increase in temperature by more than an average of 140°C or by more than 180°C at any one point for the duration of the test i.e 2 hours.

Passive Fire Protection Ratings

    • Structural Integrity (Load Bearing) -
      "A" rating (Cellulosic) = 60 minutes.

      "H" rating (Hydrocarbon) = 120 minutes.

    • Non-load bearing -
      "B" rating from 15 minutes .

    • Insulation -
      "A0" (Cellulosic) = 60 minutes Fire Protection + No Insulation Required-No limit on back face.

      "A60" (Cellulosic) = 60 minutes Fire Protection + 60 minutes Insulation-Back face limit required.

      "H0" (Hydrocarbon) = 120 minutes Fire Protection + No Insulation Required.

      "H60" (Hydrocarbon) = 120 minutes Fire Protection + 60 minutes Insulation.

      "H120" (Hydrocarbon) = 120 minutes Fire Protection + 120 minutes Insulation.

Section Factor Hp/A

    • Hp = Perimeter of section exposed to fire (m)
    • A = Cross sectional area of the steel member (m²)
    • Large Perimeter (Hp) will receive more heat than smaller perimeter.
    • Greater cross sectional area (A) of a section, the greater is the heat sink.

Section Factor Hp/A

High HpLow A Fast Heating.
Require more insulation

Low HpHigh A Slow Heating.
Require less insulation

Section Factor Hp/A

    • Hp/A = Rate at which a section will heat up in a fire he higher the value, the greater will be the protection thickness.

"Each manufacturer has their own product thickness tables based on test reports."

Passive Fire Protection Intumescent Coatings

    • Reinforce Mesh - ensure the material stays in place during the intumescent reaction.

- Type of Mesh

    • Chicken Wire Mesh - require pin
    • Carbon Mesh (Scrim) - no pin required i.e subject to site/project requirement

    • Areas Require Mesh
      - Coating thickness more than 5 mm, e.g. Firewall Installation of Mesh
      - Pinning-mesh is installed at mid depth of the PFP thickness.

    • Top Coat
      - Color Coding
      - Cosmetic
      - Weather Resistance

    • Application
      - Relative Humidity < 85% sensitive to high humidity
      - Steel Temperature < 50°C
      - Curing Time 2 hrs @ 23°C
      - Spray Pump/Roller/Trowel

    • Safety Precaution
      - Respirator
      - Safety Glass
      - Rubber Glove
      - Coverall
      - Protected Mixing Area

    • Quality Control
      - Surface well primed and free from contamination
      - WFT / DFT
      - Mixing Ratio
      - Homogeneous
      - Thinning should not be more than 5%
      - No Exposed Carbon Mesh/Chicken Wire Mesh (Fully Covered with PFP Materials)
      - Meshing at mid depth of the total thickness
      - Topcoat shall be applied within 7 days of PFP curing (surface should be free from surface contaminants)