Passive Fire Protection

Passive Fire Protection

a fire blazing in a building at night
a fire blazing in a building at night
  1. Norimax Passive Fire Protection Team specializes in application of intumescent fireproofing coatings for hydrocarbon-fires and jet-fires in the Oil & Gas environment. Norimax PFP applies both solvent-based and water-based intumescent fireproofing coatings.

  2. Norimax PFP team also specializes in the installation of fire-jackets for valves and actuators.

The Effect of Fire on Intumescent Coating

  1. Intumescent fireproofing coating swells to >40 times in volume when burnt by fire.

  2. The swelling is due to exothermic reaction of the fire-resistant chemicals in the coating.

  3. The swelling insulates the steel below the coating while swelled coating maintains its integrity for up to 2 hours.

PFP Application


Maintain Structural Integrity of Metal Supports before collapse. Steel structure collapse within 5 minutes in hydrocarbon fire.

Norimax is approved applicator for

  1. ALBI –water-base

  2. PITT-CHAR – solvent-base

Active Fire Protection

Require mechanical trigger to activate the system.

To extinguish the fire.

  1. Sprinklers

  2. Fire Extinguisher

  3. Hose Reel

Passive Fire Protection

Fireproofing systems such as coatings, jackets & blankets which do not need mechanical activation.

To protect structures under fire.

Passive Fire Protection Materials

  1. Concrete

  2. Cementitious Products

  3. Epoxy Intumescent Coatings

  4. Acrylic Intumescent Coatings

  5. Fire Proofing Casting

  6. Fire Proofing Jackets


Example: 6 inches for 2 hours fire protection

Concrete spalls after 2 hours and fire penetrate to the steel column


  1. Example: Mandoval, Pyrok, Pyrocrete

  2. Made from volcano ash (Vermiculite), mineral fiber, etc.
    2-3 inches for 2 hours fire protection Spalls after 2 hours and fire penetrate to the steel column

Intumescent Coating

  1. Firetex M90 – solvent based

  2. Chartek 7 - solvent based

  3. Pittchar - solvent based

  4. Thermolag - solvent based

  5. ALBI 800 – water based
    5-20mm thickness for 2 hours fire protection

Passive Fire Protection Intumescent Materials

Passive Fire Protection Standards/ Fire Rating

  1. Cellulosic < 1000º C Hydrocarbon Fire > 1000 º C

  2. Cellulosic-timber, fabric, paper, etc. Hydrocarbon-chemicals, fuels, gas, petroleum

  3. Jet Fire- hydrocarbon fire from fractured riser pipe or product pipeline, etc.

Steel start to buckle & collapse at about 550 deg C

Test Standards of Passive Fire Protection

  • BS 476 Part 7-Fire tests on building materials and structures

  • ASTM E119-Fire tests of Building Construction and Materials

  • ISO 834-Fire-resistance tests-Elements of building construction

Test Standards of Passive Fire Protection

  • UL 1709 Rapid Rise Fire Tests of Protection Materials for Structural Steel

  • Jet fire-Sintef Test (Norway)

  • Jet fire-British Gas Test (Spade Adams-UK)

Testing Bodies

  • Underwriter Laboratories (UL)-USA

  • Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD)

  • Sintef (Norway)

  • Det Norske Veritas (DNV) - Norway

  • Lloyds Register - UK

  • BAM - Germany (vessels)

  • ExxonMobil - US

Fire Test Heat Flux

  • Cellulosic Fire 100kW/m²

  • Hydrocarbon Fire 200kW/m²

  • Jet Fire 300kW/m²


  1. STABILITY - The construction must remain stable during the period of the fire and must not collapse.

  2. INTEGRITY - The construction must maintain its integrity during the test period such that no gaps of sufficient width open up to allow penetration of flames.

  3. INSULATION - The fire insulation properties of the construction must be such that unexposed face must not increase in temperature by more than an average of 140°C or by more than 180°C at any one point for the duration of the test i.e 2 hours.

Passive Fire Protection Ratings

  • Structural Integrity (Load Bearing)
    "A" rating (Cellulosic) = 60 minutes.
    "H" rating (Hydrocarbon) = 120 minutes.

  • Non-load bearing
    "B" rating from 15 minutes .

  • Insulation

    • "A0" (Cellulosic) = 60 minutes Fire Protection + No Insulation Required-No limit on back face.

    • "A60" (Cellulosic) = 60 minutes Fire Protection + 60 minutes Insulation-Back face limit required.

    • "H0" (Hydrocarbon) = 120 minutes Fire Protection + No Insulation Required.

    • "H60" (Hydrocarbon) = 120 minutes Fire Protection + 60 minutes Insulation.

    • "H120" (Hydrocarbon) = 120 minutes Fire Protection + 120 minutes Insulation.

Section Factor Hp/A

  1. Hp = Perimeter of section exposed to fire (m)

  2. A = Cross sectional area of the steel member (m²)

  3. Large Perimeter (Hp) will receive more heat than smaller perimeter.

  4. Greater cross sectional area (A) of a section, the greater is the heat sink.

Hp/A = Rate at which a section will heat up in a fire he higher the value, the greater will be the protection thickness.

"Each manufacturer has their own product thickness tables based on test reports."

High Hp Low A Fast Heating (Requires more insulation)

Low Hp High A Slow Heating (Requires less insulation)

Passive Fire Protection Intumescent Coatings

Reinforce Mesh - ensure the material stays in place during the intumescent reaction.

Types of Mesh

  1. Chicken Wire Mesh - require pin

  2. Carbon Mesh (Scrim) - no pin required i.e subject to site/project requirement

Areas That Require Mesh
  • Coating thickness more than 5 mm, e.g. Firewall Installation of Mesh

  • Pinning-mesh is installed at mid depth of the PFP thickness.

Top Coat
  • Color Coding

  • Cosmetic

  • Weather Resistance

  • Relative Humidity < 85% sensitive to high humidity

  • Steel Temperature < 50°C

  • Curing Time 2 hrs @ 23°C

  • Spray Pump/Roller/Trowel

Safety Precaution
  • Respirator

  • Safety Glass

  • Rubber Glove

  • Coverall

  • Protected Mixing Area

Quality Control
  • - Surface well primed and free from contamination

  • WFT / DFT

  • Mixing Ratio

  • Homogeneous

  • Thinning should not be more than 5%

  • No Exposed Carbon Mesh/Chicken Wire Mesh (Fully Covered with PFP Materials)

  • Meshing at mid depth of the total thickness

  • Topcoat shall be applied within 7 days of PFP curing (surface should be free from surface contaminants)

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